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Overview of history

1st Generation

Previously, we deployed our application using multiple physical servers. To make things clearer, when we have an application that needs a web server, database and application server to run, we use three separate hardware to deploy it.

JavaScript is a widely used scripting language which based on ECMA Script specification. Even though JavaScript hasn’t been evolved for years, the entrance of MEAN (MongoDB, Express, Angular, Node) Stack has resulted in some useful upgrades. As a result, ECMAScript 6 (also known as ES6 and ECMAScript 2015) was released in June 2015 and is now extensively utilized.

JavaScript ES6 introduces new syntax along with several new features designed to make your code more modern and readable. It enables you to do more with less code.

In this article, I’m going to cover some of the new features that have…

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What is Chain of responsibility design pattern?

The Chain Of Responsibility pattern enables you to loosely couple the senders and receivers of a request. We build a receiver objects chain in this pattern, with each receiver containing a reference to another receiver. This chain receives a request from the client and starts processing it. If first object is unable to handle the request, it is passed to the next receiver, and so on, until the request is fully handled.

During the run time, the objects in the chain will decide who will handle the request and whether it needs to be passed on to the next object…

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What is Builder Design Pattern?

The Builder is a design pattern that allows us to build a complex object from simple objects in a step-by-step manner. The builder design pattern is classified as a creational pattern.

Why Should we use Builder design pattern?

Let’s look at the example below to find the answer to the above question.

Assume that a shop sells hot-buns to their customers. A hot-bun can be either chicken-bun or beef-bun. There are three sizes to choose from: small, medium, and large. A customer can also request extra sauce, cheese or a cool drink when ordering a hot-bun. However, these extra items are optional. …

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What is Prototype Design pattern?

prototypes design pattern allows you to create objects by cloning an existing object instead of creating a new object from scratch. This pattern is used when the process of object creation is costly. when cloning, the newly copied object contains the same characteristics as its source object. After cloning, we can change the values of the new object’s properties as required. This pattern comes under a creational pattern.

For easier understanding, Assume that a database operation should be done in order to create an object. This database call is both time-consuming and costly. we need to create multiple objects. As…

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What is Factory Method Design Pattern?

The factory method is a design pattern that provides an interface or abstract class for creating an object and allows its subclasses to decide which class to be instantiated. Factory pattern is classified as a creational pattern.

For easier understanding, Let’s assume a shop contains a variety of products, and the shopkeeper delivers us the things we require based on our requirements. In the same way, the factory pattern works. Typically, we pass parameters. Our factory method determines which class should be instantiated based on the parameter we passed, and creates and provides an instance of that specific class.


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What is Singleton?

The Singleton is one of the most used design pattern which is used to create a class that can have only one instance that can be accessed globally. Singleton is classified as a creational pattern.

Only one singleton object can be made, per container. If you’re a JAVA developer, you’ll get one Instance per JVM.


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To understand DNS spoofing, we must have enough knowledge about DNS servers and how it works.

How Internet works? (Overview)

Each and every devices in the world which is connected to the internet will own a unique IP address. An IP address is a unique address that identifies a device on the internet or a local network. The term IP (Internet Protocol) refers to a collection of rules that regulate the format of data transmitted over the internet or a local network.

If you are currently connected to the internet, you too have a unique IP address. …

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What is Time Zones?

A time zone is a region with a standard time throughout that is used for all social, commercial and legal purposes within that region. As per 24 hours, Earth is divided into 24 time zones by longitude. Each line of longitude is separated by fifteen degrees. Therefore time difference between 2 adjacent time zone is one hour. As a result depending on which way one travels, time moves forward or backwards one hour for every fifteen degrees of longitude.

What is UTC?

UTC is the abbreviation for Coordinated Universal Time. It is a global standard for determining all time zones. UTC is based…

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what is a Message broker?

A message broker is a software that allows applications, systems, and services to communicate and share data with each other. This is accomplished by the message brokers by converting messages between formal messaging protocols. This enables interdependent services to communicate directly with one another, even though they are written in different languages or run on different platforms.

Message brokers often use a substructure called a message queue to provide reliable message storage and assured delivery. The message queue stores and orders the messages until the consuming applications can process them. …

Arshad Suraj

Associate Software Engineer at Virtusa

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